From backcountry ski tours to mountaineering in some of the most brutal weather on Earth, a 4-season tent is the last line of defense between you and the elements. Accordingly, these tents are much stronger than their 3-season counterparts with less mesh, more substantial canopies and rainflies, tougher pole structures, and a whole host of features designed for winter use. Below are our picks for the best 4-season tents of 2021. Given the range of possible uses, we’ve categorized the different models under mountaineering, basecamp, and treeline. For more background, see our 4-season tent comparison table and buying advice below the picks.
Packaged weight: 9 lbs. 10 oz.
Floor area: 40 sq. ft.
What we like: Tough build and great livability.
What we don’t: Heavy.
Choosing our favorite 4-season tent was no easy task, but Mountain Hardwear deftly balances it all with their time-tested Trango 2. This tent knows bad weather as well as any other, with a burly, double-wall design and fly that connects not only to the poles but also to the body of the tent for added security in high winds. With two doors and two vestibules you get great livability, and the generous 40 square foot footprint is significantly roomier than any other 2-person model here. In their most recent update, Mountain Hardwear added D-shaped doors for easy entry and expanded the bathtub floor for an even better defense against the elements.
Ultimately, the decision between the Mountain Hardwear Trango 2 and a single-wall tent like the Black Diamond Eldorado below comes down to your winter camping style. Some feel that the extra pounds are worth the added features and space, while others want to get up and down the mountain with as little weight as possible in their pack. One upside of the Trango 2 is that it’s easy to divvy up with your climbing partner to split the weight (single-wall tents often are not). And if weight isn’t an issue—which might be the case if you have porters or are flying into an area—the Trango comes in 3- and 4-person models for even more basecamp luxury.
See the Mountain Hardwear Trango 2
Best Single-Wall Mountaineering Tent
Packaged weight: 5 lbs. 1 oz.
Floor area: 30.8 sq. ft.
What we like: Lightweight and compact.
What we don’t: Mediocre ventilation and internal pole structure.
The Black Diamond Eldorado is a classic. Despite numerous updates over the years, this single-wall, two-pole tent has withstood a whole lot of blustery winter nights and summit pushes. Most importantly, durability and build quality are superb—it has been used on Everest expeditions and been proven over decades of alpine use. Despite the toughness, the tent weighs just 5 pounds 1 ounce, which is just about as low as you’ll get for a serious mountaineering tent.
Keep in mind that the Black Diamond Eldorado is comfy for one person and gear, but not roomy for two. If you want extra space, a vestibule is available as an add-on for $170 (we’ve always been fans of a small vestibule built into the tent and don’t like the extra cost). Moreover, internal tent poles are considered by many to be a hassle—they can be difficult to set up and can poke holes through the corners of the tent if you aren't careful. Finally, single-wall tents don’t breathe nearly as well as double-wall models. But the weight savings is worth the sacrifices for many alpinists, making the Eldorado the top minimalist 4-season tent on the market. It’s worth noting that many of Black Diamond’s tents are currently out of stock due to supply chain issues, but we expect availability to improve soon.
See the Black Diamond Eldorado
Best All-Season Tent for Treeline Adventures
Trail weight: 4 lbs. 1 oz.
Floor area: 29 sq. ft.
What we like: Ultralight for a double-wall tent yet decently protective.
What we don’t: Limited to treeline environments or spring conditions; the fly doesn’t fully extend to the ground.
Many 4-season tents are overkill for mild winter conditions, especially when you can get away with a lighter and more breathable design. Enter the “treeline” category, and our top pick MSR Access 2. The double-wall Access toes the line between the 3- and 4-season categories, with more bombproof protection than a standard backpacking tent in a streamlined and packable 4-pound-1-ounce design. What’s more, you still get two doors and two vestibules and 29 square feet of floor area (our testers jumped up to the three-person version for extra space plus a canine). For backcountry ski trips when the weather is fairly good or you won’t be fully exposed, the Access is a really cool tent to have in your quiver.
The MSR Access’s “treeline” designation is a bit tricky. The last thing you want is to be in over your head in a winter storm, and the 4-pound weight is awfully light (it’s essentially a sturdy 3-season backpacking tent with less mesh). But we took the Access out in the B.C. backcountry and even the Cordillera Huayhuash in Peru with no issues. It’s worth noting that in blustery conditions, the fly doesn’t fully extend to the ground and therefore you must create a snow wall for protection from drafts and drifts. And the tent doesn’t include MSR’s snow-specific Blizzard stakes (just regular pegs), so we recommend bringing those along… Read in-depth review
See the MSR Access 2
Best Ultralight 4-Season Shelter
Packaged weight: 3 lbs. 10 oz.
Floor area: 78 sq. ft.
What we like: Incredible versatility for snow camping.
What we don’t: Floorless design means you’re more exposed to the elements.
You’ll likely want a fully featured tent for sleeping in the snow, but as a dining shelter, gear storage, or simply a change of scenery when cabin fever sets in, the Black Diamond Mega Snow is a total basecamp luxury. And we use the word “luxury” lightly—with single-wall construction and no floor, it’s far from the most protective tent here. But the value of this shelter really comes into full view while camping on snow: the center pole prop serves as a table, while the outer edges can be dug out to create seating for up to 6. The Mega Snow tacks on vents (this is one shelter we encourage you to cook in!) and a nifty valence around the perimeter, which increases interior space and keeps the elements at bay. Finally, it can double as a lightweight sleeping shelter in a pinch—we’ve fit 4 sleepers in Black Diamond’s Mega Light, and the Mega Snow is considerably roomier at 78 square feet.
But calling the Mega Snow a 4-season tent is a bit of a stretch. Its tough 30-denier canopy has withstood winds up to 50 miles per hour throughout our testing, but it just doesn’t compare to burlier tents like the Hilleberg Nammatj 2 GT below or even the single-walled Black Diamond Eldorado. In essence, it is a glorified tarp with no floor: in truly cold or windy conditions, it’s prone to flapping around and will feel quite drafty (you can pile snow on the valence, but ventilation will suffer). And keep in mind that Black Diamond also makes the much lighter Mega Light (2 lb. 13 oz.) with no valence, and the Mega Bug, which sets up underneath the pyramid shelter and adds a bug net and bathtub floor for an extra 3 pounds 10 ounces. Finally, many BD models are currently out of stock (including the Mega Snow), but we expect to see revamped inventory early next year.
See the Black Diamond Mega Snow
Best of the Rest
Packaged weight: 9 lbs. 15 oz.
Floor area: 32.3 sq. ft.
What we like: Good value for a burly basecamp-style design.
What we don’t: Heavier and less spacious than the Trango 2 above.
The North Face’s Mountain 25 has been trusted for years in the most inhospitable regions of the planet. And although it’s the heaviest tent on our list, you’ll be thankful for all 9 pounds 15 ounces when you’re weathering out tough conditions in basecamp. Similar to the Trango 2 above, the Mountain 25 features a burly double-wall build, stout poles, and time-tested fabrics that thrive in tough conditions. Two doors and vestibules provide multiple entry points and ample storage space. And the tent ventilates well, feels roomy with a peak height of 41 inches (3 inches taller than the Trango 2), is loaded with internal pockets, and is easy to set up and take down.
It was a tough call between the Trango 2 and the Mountain 25 for our top pick, but in the end the Mountain Hardwear won out for its roomier floorplan in a slightly lighter build. But the two tents go head to head in practically all other categories, including weather protection, durability, and price. And a footprint is now included with the Mountain 25 (the Trango’s is purchased separately for $80), but it’s unlikely you’ll need the extra durability for camping on snow. For a larger three-person version of this tent with more interior space, try The North Face VE 25... Read in-depth review
See the North Face Mountain 25
Packaged weight: 7 lbs. 4 oz.
Floor area: 31.2 sq. ft.
What we like: Premium materials and construction, versatile for all-season use.
What we don’t: Expensive and heavy for a treeline tent.
Based in Sweden, Hilleberg specializes in tents, with a strong lineup of designs for everything from solo fastpacking to high-altitude mountaineering and polar expeditions. Each model features ultra-premium materials and focuses on small details like no other brand, making Hilleberg some of the most reliable—and expensive—tents on the market. The Allak is one of their most popular offerings, with a lightweight yet sturdy dome structure that’s protective in a storm yet breathable enough for summer heat. In short, it’s among the most versatile all-season designs available, and with two doors and vestibules the Allak’s 7-pound 4-ounce weight is considerably lighter than competing models like the Trango 2 above.
The Allak walks the line between our “treeline” and “basecamp” categories, and Hilleberg’s Red Label (one step below their legendary Black Label) alludes to a similar classification. In other words, it’s a step up from a tent like the REI Arete ASL (below), but not quite on par with the Trango or Mountain 25 above in terms of protection. But in our experience, the Allak is strong enough to handle the gusty winds and heavy precipitation of true winter weather, making it a just-right option for winter camping in the Lower 48. Within Hilleberg’s lineup, you can also bump up to the Staika for a similar yet more protective build (8 lbs. 13 oz.), or check out the tunnel-shaped Nammatj 2 GT below. Like Black Diamond, Hilleberg has also had difficulty with supply chain issues during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in low (or no) inventory for most of their tents... Read in-depth review
See the Hilleberg Allak 2
Packaged weight: 3 lbs. 3 oz.
Floor area: 24 sq. ft.
What we like: The lightest tent here but still waterproof; easy setup.
What we don’t: No mesh door and very limited floor area.
Black Diamond’s Eldorado above offers a great combination of bombproof weather protection in a streamlined build, but for some climbers it’s still too much tent. Enter the MSR Advance Pro 2, which features a packed weight of 3 pounds 3 ounces (almost a full 2 lbs. less than the Eldorado) and a tiny 24-square-foot floor area that fits on the smallest mountain ledges. Set up doesn’t get much easier (MSR even has a video of setting up the Advance Pro while perched on a bucket) and the external pole sleeves mean you don’t have to crawl in and out to get a perfect pitch. Side vents help with airflow, and a waterproof coating on both the body and floor keeps most moisture out (we recommend sealing the seams too).
The Black Diamond Firstlight below used to be our go-to tent for fast-and-light pursuits, but after too many nights of dealing with wet walls and pesky drips, we turned to the Advance Pro 2 as a more waterproof option (it doesn’t hurt that it’s slightly lighter too). But there are some compromises with the design, namely in terms of interior space. With a 24-square-foot floor, you lose 6 inches off the width of the Firstlight, making the Advance Pro 2 barely tenable for two. As a result, we recommend the MSR strictly for the most weight-conscious of missions and stick with a model like the Eldorado otherwise. And it’s important to note that the Advance Pro 2 does lack a mesh door, which might be a deal breaker for some.
See the MSR Advance Pro 2
Packaged weight: 7 lbs. 11 oz.
Floor area: 36.3 sq. ft.
What we like: External pole structure sets up fast and reduces weight.
What we don’t: Low peak height and thin fly fabric.
Taking direct aim at the popular Trango and Mountain 25 tents above is the Nemo Chogori 2. The big news with this tent is its combined double-wall construction and external pole structure, which makes it faster and easier to pitch in inclement weather (the Trango and Mountain require that you set up the body and rainfly separately, which takes more time and can lead to moisture getting inside the tent). Nemo didn’t skimp on quality either with strong DAC poles and silicone-treated nylon on the fly for added durability and weatherproofing, plus the addition of a wrap-around snow skirt on the newest version. And at 7 pounds 11 ounces, the Chogori is among the lighter basecamp-ready tents on this list.
What are the downsides of the Nemo Chogori? With 36.3 square feet of interior space, it’s fairly roomy for a 2-person design, but its 39-inch peak height means less head room than most tents here (on the other hand, this is great for keeping a low profile in heavy winds). Further, the fly fabric is relatively thin at just 30-denier, compared to the 70- or 75-denier of many basecamp tents here. And at $750, it’s more expensive than the Mountain 25 ($690) and doesn’t come with the Trango’s long track record in extreme conditions. But taken together, the Chogori’s simple and quick set-up, strong pole structure, and reasonable weight makes it an attractive and versatile option for mountaineering and other winter backcountry adventures.
See the Nemo Chogori 2
Packaged weight: 8 lbs. 3 oz.
Floor area: 30.1 sq. ft.
What we like: Super roomy vestibule and superb in high winds.
What we don’t: Only one door and peak height is low for a basecamping tent.
The Allak above is a versatile treeline/basecamp tent from Hilleberg, but for extreme mountain conditions their Nammatj GT is a very popular option. One of Hilleberg’s legendary Black Label tents—a designation reserved for their most premium, protective, and comfortable models—the Nammatj combines Kerlon fabric and a tunnel-shaped design for remarkable stability and protection. Ideal for basecamping, the GT version here tacks on 25.8 square feet of storage with its extended vestibule, which we’ve found indispensable for living in particularly inclement conditions. All told, considering the all-in weight of 8 pounds 3 ounces, you’ll be hard-pressed to find a 4-season tent that does more while weighing less (and the standard Nammatj is only 6 lbs. 10 oz.).
A nice alternative to many of the dome tents here, the Nammatj GT’s unique tunnel shape is aerodynamic in strong winds and easily sheds snow. This design makes it one of our top picks for the harsh conditions of remote mountaineering, high-altitude expeditions, and polar explorations, but you do give up a bit of livability with only one door and a lower peak height (37 in. compared to the TNF Mountain’s 41 in.). In terms of ventilation, the Nammatj is impressive with double walls, two large vents on either end, and a mesh door on the outer entrance. Finally, if you’re looking to shed some ounces, it’s also worth checking out the Nallo (5 lbs. 5 oz.), a lightweight mountaineering tent that features a more streamlined tunnel shape and thinner Kerlon fabric.
See the Hilleberg Nammatj 2 GT
Packaged weight: 6 lbs. 5 oz.
Floor area: 32.9 sq. ft.
What we like: A great value for a 4-season tent.
What we don’t: Not built for the toughest of conditions.
Similar to the Hilleberg Allak above, there’s a time and place for the Arete. REI calls it “all season light,” which translates to a tent that offers better weather protection than a traditional 3-season model but isn’t built for super-strong winds or heavy snow loads. But with a four-pole design, the Arete is a very stable tent, and head room is generous at 43 inches. For 6 pounds 5 ounces and only $399, it’s an economical way to hit the backcountry on a ski or snowshoe trip in mild to moderate conditions. Put simply, you won’t find a better deal anywhere on this list.
One thing in particular that we like about the REI Co-op Arete is that it’s a true year-round option. The double-wall design and substantial mesh door and vents means that it can be used for normal backpacking trips not involving the cold, but the Arete can hold its own on snow as well. As long as you don’t depend on the Arete to be your companion on high-altitude or particularly stormy missions, it’s great for the shoulder seasons and a healthy range of mild winter trips.
See the REI Co-op Arete ASL 2
Packaged weight: 3 lbs. 6 oz.
Floor area: 27.3 sq. ft.
What we like: Lightweight and super easy to pack.
What we don’t: Not waterproof.
The Black Diamond Firstlight is a polarizing 4-season tent. Some climbers rave about just how light and packable it is, while others decry its middling weather protection. What’s our take? It’s ideal for the right objective, and a poor choice for just about everything else. Under clear skies or in sub-freezing temperatures, the Firstlight provides a stable shelter at a very low packed weight (only the MSR Advance Pro 2 is lighter), and with better breathability than much of the single-walled competition (the mesh door is a big plus). Top it off with a super affordable price tag and a 6-inch wider floor area than the aforementioned MSR, and there’s a reason why climbers turn to the Firstlight year after year for minimalist protection from the elements.
But the biggest shortcoming of the Black Diamond Firstlight—and we won’t sugarcoat it here—is that it’s not waterproof. The NanoShield canopy fabric has a silicone coating that is water resistant, and you’ll have to seam seal the tent before using it to prevent leaks. In dry snow and wind, the tent puts up a valiant defense, but you’re guaranteed a wet night in anything more than a light rain. For comparison’s sake, even the minimalist MSR Advance Pro 2 above offers a significant bump in wet-weather protection, and the BD Eldorado is still our favorite single-wall tent if you’re willing to shoulder the extra weight. And keep in mind that the Firstlight is also available in a 3P design ($399, 3 lbs. 13.6 oz.), which is a reasonable option for those who need a bit more space.
See the Black Diamond Firstlight 2P
Packaged weight: 10 lbs. 3 oz.
Floor area: 37 sq. ft.
What we like: Weather-ready expedition tent with the option of a roomier 3-person model.
What we don’t: Lacks the street cred of tents like the Trango 2 and Mountain 25 above.
Marmot is no stranger in the tent world. Their backpacking-focused Tungsten is a consistent best seller, but the Thor represents a move away from the fast-and-light focus into an expedition-ready design. With a double-wall build, large floor area, and hefty packed weight, the Thor falls into the same camp as tents like the Mountain Hardwear Trango 2 and The North Face Mountain 25 above. It’s slightly heavier (although the extra 4-9 ounces is just a drop in the bucket), but with 37 square feet of floor area and 44 inches of head room (that’s 6 in. taller than the Trango) you get ample room to spread out and wait for the storm to pass.
With a robust 6-pole design, double walls, and fully taped seams, an expedition tent like the Marmot Thor is a reliable fortress against wind and rain. Unlike the single-wall options included here, you’re not going to be dealing with drips or sunken tent walls. And in terms of durability, it keeps step with the Trango 2 and Mountain 25 with a 40-denier canopy, 50-denier fly, and 70-denier floor. To be sure, the Mountain Hardwear and TNF tents have braved many more nights of winter weather and have the street cred to back it up, but the Thor is a dark horse and doesn’t fall too far behind. Finally, it’s nice to have the option of a larger size too: for only $50 and less than a pound more, the Thor 3 offers 10 extra square feet of floor area and even more headroom.
See the Marmot Thor 2P
Packaged weight: 8 lbs. 1.1 oz.
Floor area: 45.8 sq. ft.
What we like: Lightweight and strong, yet roomy enough for 3.
What we don’t: You can save weight with a more streamlined design like the BD Eldorado.
Mountain Hardwear’s Trango 2 above is a perennial favorite for those who want maximum basecamp protection, but if you’re looking to shave some weight for summit pushes, the ACI 3 is a great tent to have in your pack. Built for expeditions on the world’s highest peaks, the ACI features burly single-wall construction and a reinforced sleeved-pole design that sets up in a flash and is stable and quiet in high winds. And despite its streamlined design, the Mountain Hardwear tacks on a number of useful features: one of our favorites is the interior snow port, which unzips so that you can sweep out accumulated snow, rope up to an outside anchor, or even relieve yourself when you’re tent-bound on a snow day.
At only 8 pounds 1.1 ounces for 45.8 square feet of livable space (the 3-person Trango is 48 sq. ft. and clocks in at 11 lbs. 5.1 oz.), the ACI 3 is fairly competitive in terms of weight and fits three sleepers better than most mountaineering tents here (the attached vestibule is nice, too). And for two people and their gear, it’s certainly a more comfortable choice than a tent like our top-ranked Eldorado (5 lb. 1 oz.), but the weight penalty is significant. Finally, like most single-wall tents, ventilation isn’t the ACI’s strongest suit, but you do get four zippered vents and a full mesh door to encourage airflow. All told, you can’t go wrong with Mountain Headwear’s mountaineering tent collection (we also love their minimalist AC 2), and the ACI 3 is provides a nice balance of protection, minimalism, and livability.
See the Mountain Hardwear ACI 3
Packaged weight: 6 lbs. 3 oz.
Floor area: 41 sq. ft.
What we like: Very spacious but still lightweight.
What we don’t: Not as bombproof as heavier options.
With the Copper Spur HV3 Expedition, Big Agnes took their wildly popular backpacking tent and added a host of 4-season features to make an intriguing winter camping and mountaineering design. We’ve include the three-person model here, which is far roomier than any of the two-person options on our list, yet has a packaged weight of just over 6 pounds. Compared to the 3-person MSR Access (5 lbs. 1 oz.), the Copper Spur weighs over a pound more but easily surpasses it in livability with near-vertical walls. Tack on beefy, large-diameter poles, glove-compatible zipper pulls, and multiple tie-down options that are large enough to be staked out with skis, and the Copper Spur Expedition is a proper, winter-ready structure.
Despite its great space-to-weight ratio, the Copper Spur Expedition strikes us as an in-between design that doesn’t excel at anything. With thin fabrics and a hubbed, three-pole structure, it just can’t match the protection provided by the Trango 2 above, which boasts a four-pole build and burly (albeit heavy) 40D nylon walls. And true ounce counters will probably sacrifice a bit of comfort for the weight savings of a single-walled tent. But if you’re looking for a middle ground that prioritizes both space and weight, the Big Agnes is an intriguing alternative. For a more traditional basecamp-style design from Big Agnes for mountaineering or serious winter objectives, check out their Battle Mountain line. And like many tents here, the Copper Spur is low on stock this spring due to COVID-related supply chain issues, but continue to check back here and on their website for inventory-related updates.
See the Big Agnes Copper Spur HV3 Expedition
Packaged weight: 7 lbs. 1 oz.
Floor area: 34.4 sq. ft.
What we like: A highly stable double-wall design with a small footprint.
What we don’t: Only one door and vestibule, heavy for a mountaineering tent.
The Hilleberg Allak above is a souped-up version of a standard dome tent, with two doors and two vestibules providing great livability for a range of adventuring. But for those pushing the limits in the alpine, the Jannu offers a sleeker footprint and slightly better structure for heavy winds and snow loading. This mountaineering tent is competitive with top models like the Black Diamond Eldorado above: it’s compact, super strong, has one door and one vestibule, and offers good livability at over 34 square feet of interior space. The Jannu is perfect for a single climber to spread out with a lot of gear, or does just fine as a double for a summit push.
Compared to the Eldorado, the Jannu’s double-wall construction gives it a bump in both protection and breathability, meaning it will perform better across a range of conditions (including on warm-weather expeditions). On the other hand, it suffers in terms of weight: for 2 pounds less, most fast-and-light mountaineers will opt for the Eldorado (or even lighter models like the Access or Firstlight). But 7 pounds 1 ounce is very respectable for a double-wall design, and the Jannu is still lighter than any of the true basecamping models here. Like everything from Hilleberg, it’ll cost you a pretty penny at $1,075, but the Jannu is a very versatile and protective mountaineering tent for the right user.
See the Hilleberg Jannu 2
Packaged weight: 9 lbs. 12 oz.
Floor area: 50 sq. ft.
What we like: Very spacious and almost unflappable in high winds.
What we don’t: Heavy, expensive, and not as luxurious as a double-wall tent.
Tents in our basecamp category are the most stable, weather protective, and roomy among 4-season models, built for weathering multiple days of storm in relative comfort (assuming you like your tentmates). As a result, most of them feature double-wall construction and clock in at around 8 to 10 pounds for a spacious 2-person model. But the Black Diamond Bombshelter bucks this trend with a single-wall build and a whopping 50 square feet of floor area (that’s 10 square feet more than any other basecamp tent here). The result is a tent that can fit 3 large humans (or 4 in a pinch) for the same weight as many 2-person designs, with very little sacrifice. In fact, the taut build and minimal fabric give it excellent stability in the toughest of squalls.
The Bombshelter’s single-wall designation might have you cringing, but don’t rush too quickly to judgement: its ToddTex fabric is highly breathable (on par with double-wall tents) thanks to a soft liner that wicks moisture. In fact, our largest complaint with the single-wall design is having to crawl inside to set the tent up (if you have pitched the Eldorado or Firstlight, you know what we are talking about). Further, having just one layer between you and the elements means you could get wet when brushing up against the tent wall, which is why we rank the Bombshelter here. But for a 3-person team you’d be hard pressed to find a lighter and more spacious option. For comparison’s sake, the 4-person Mountain Hardwear Trango features 57 square feet of floor area but clocks in at a hefty 12 pounds 12.4 ounces.
See the Black Diamond Bombshelter
Packaged weight: 7 lbs. 15 oz.
Floor area: 34.5 sq. ft.
What we like: A great value and roomy.
What we don’t: Heavy, bulky, and limited performance capabilities.
We’ll start by saying that we’ve had positive experiences overall with Alps products, although they are budget in nature and definitely not among our top performers. But you can’t argue with the value, which is why the Alps Tasmanian made this list. At only $300, you get a fairly protective tent that will do the trick for most casual winter campers. We particularly like the roominess of this tent, which at 34.5 square feet is one of the biggest two-person models. Plus, the large mesh vent at the top does a fairly good job at promoting airflow and preventing condensation from building up.
It’s important to have reasonable expectations for a 4-season tent in this price range. First, the Alps Tasmanian is heavy at 7 pounds 15 ounces, not to mention it’s bulky and somewhat difficult to stuff into the included sack (although you’ll likely end up separating the tent body and poles to make it easier to fit in a pack). Second, we don’t recommend putting this tent to the limit in terms of tough winter weather. It should perform fine in the cold and light to moderate wind, but the tents above use higher-quality materials and much more complex designs. Finally, durability always is a concern with products that undercut the rest of the market in price. Alps does cover manufacturing defects under their warranty but not anything related to normal wear and tear.
See the Alps Mountaineering Tasmanian 2
|Mountain Hardwear Trango 2||$700||Basecamp||9 lbs. 10 oz.||40 sq. ft.||38 in.||Double|
|Black Diamond Eldorado||$730||Mountaineering||5 lbs. 1 oz.||30.8 sq. ft.||43 in.||Single|
|MSR Access 2||$600||Treeline||4 lbs. 1 oz.||29 sq. ft.||42 in.||Double|
|Black Diamond Mega Snow||$400||Basecamp/treeline||3 lbs. 10 oz.||78 sq. ft.||66 in.||Single|
|The North Face Mountain 25||$690||Basecamp||9 lbs. 15 oz.||32.3 sq. ft.||41 in.||Double|
|Hilleberg Allak 2||$1,095||Treeline/basecamp||7 lbs. 4 oz.||31.2 sq. ft.||41 in.||Double|
|MSR Advance Pro 2||$550||Mountaineering||3 lbs. 3 oz.||24 sq. ft.||44 in.||Single|
|Nemo Chogori 2||$750||Basecamp||7 lbs. 11 oz.||36.3 sq. ft.||39 in.||Double|
|Hilleberg Nammatj 2 GT||$1,065||Basecamp||8 lbs. 3 oz.||30.1 sq. ft.||37 in.||Double|
|REI Co-op Arete ASL 2||$399||Treeline||6 lbs. 5 oz.||32.9 sq. ft.||43 in.||Double|
|Black Diamond Firstlight 2P||$370||Mountaineering||3 lbs. 6 oz.||27.3 sq. ft.||42 in.||Single|
|Marmot Thor 2P||$699||Basecamp||10 lbs. 3 oz.||37 sq. ft.||44 in.||Double|
|Mountain Hardwear ACI 3||$900||Mountaineering||8 lbs. 1 oz.||45.8 sq. ft.||41 in.||Single|
|Big Agnes Copper Spur HV3||$550||Treeline/basecamp||6 lbs. 3 oz.||41 sq. ft.||41 in.||Double|
|Hilleberg Jannu 2||$1,075||Mountaineering||7 lbs. 1 oz.||34.4 sq. ft.||39 in.||Double|
|Black Diamond Bombshelter||$1,000||Basecamp||9 lbs. 12 oz.||50 sq. ft.||44 in.||Single|
|Alps Tasmanian 2||$350||Treeline||7 lbs. 15 oz.||34.5 sq. ft.||46 in.||Double|
- 4-Season Tent Types
- Weight and Packed Size
- Double-Wall vs. Single-Wall Tents
- Size: Floor Area and Peak Height
- Ventilation and Condensation
- Silnylon vs. Polyurethane
- Storage: Vestibules and Interior Pockets
- Tent Pole Quality
- Stakes and Snow Anchors
- When Waterproofing Matters
- 4-Season vs. 3-Season Tents
- A Note on 4-Season Shelters
The term 4-season tent is a catch-all for any shelter that is made to withstand inclement, winter weather. However, there’s still a fair amount of variation within the category, which includes bulletproof, spacious, and heavy tents (great for basecamping), lightweight single-wall builds (great for alpine pushes), and everything in between. Below, we break down our three main categories of 4-season tents: mountaineering, basecamp, and treeline.
Mountaineering tents are built for high-alpine environments with weight as a primary consideration. Many of these tents are of the single-wall variety (more on that below) and make few compromises in terms of wind and weather protection. Square footage tends to be lower than basecamping and treeline tents, and the same goes for peak height. Almost all mountaineering tents are waterproof (or easily seam-sealed), with one exception being the lightweight Black Diamond Firstlight.
4-season tents of the basecamping variety are more comfortable and heavier than their mountaineering siblings above. To start, you may not have to carry your tent as far or as high, and therefore you can get away with packing more weight (and getting more tent in return). In addition, it’s highly likely that you’ll end up spending more time in a basecamp-style tent. Mountaineering tents are designed for fast and light adventures and summit pushes, but basecamping can be done in a variety of circumstances and conditions. Many of these tents have a double-wall design, which helps with ventilation, condensation prevention, and space, all at the expense of weight.
Treeline tents are the most trimmed-down 4-season models on the market. As the name implies, tents like the REI Co-op Arete ASL are designed for winter camping but not necessarily for heavy exposure in the high mountains. Compared to a 3-season version, a treeline tent will have a more substantial bathtub floor, less mesh, and heavier canopy and rainfly fabrics. But these tents fall short of basecamp and mountaineering models in terms of their toughness and durability, and it’s best not to put them to the test. They are, however, a nice option for light winter adventuring and serious 3-season backpacking in unpredictable weather.
4-season tents weigh more than their 3-season counterparts due to heavier and more durable fabrics, stronger poles, and beefier zippers. On the light end of the spectrum, the minimalist Black Diamond Firstlight has a feathery packaged weight of just 3 pounds 6 ounces, while a heavy-duty model like the Mountain 25 is nearly 10 pounds. Even if you look at the trail weight instead of the packaged weight (which doesn’t factor in stuff sacks, stakes, and guylines), you’ll still be close to 9 pounds for a number of tents on this list for the two-person version (the three- and four-person models weigh even more).
As with almost all types of outdoor gear, going up in weight has its advantages. Heavier 4-season tents generally are tougher and more weather resistant, ventilate better, and have more features. You’re getting a whole lot more tent, which may end up being worthwhile. We’ve been tent-bound in a Firstlight for three days on end, and even in with the rose-colored tint of nostalgia, the experience still remains a dismal one. We surely would have traded a few pounds of peanut M&Ms for the comfort and weather protection of a heavier tent like the TNF Mountain 25.
Weight and packed size generally go hand in hand and there is a strong correlation between the two variables. In many cases, two or more climbing partners can split up the components on the tent to less the burden for each. It’s worth noting that this process can be more difficult for single-wall tents than the double-wall variety—with no rainfly, the tent body is the vast majority of the weight and bulk. But with most double-wall tents, the canopy and rainfly often can be split up fairly evenly.
A critical distinction among 4-season tents is between double and single-wall designs. Simply put, a double-wall tent is composed of two separate layers: the inner tent canopy and an outer rainfly. Single-wall tents, on the other hand, have one layer of fabric to protect you from the outside elements. Single-wall tents are considerably lighter than double-wall models and still can be tough as nails, but at the cost of comfort, weather protection, and ventilation.
Which type of 4-season tent design should you choose? Unless weight and packed size are your top priorities, a double-wall wins out in basically every respect. By and large, you get more space, two doors rather than one, and larger vestibules (many single-wall tents forgo the vestibule completely). Second, with two layers of fabric between you and the elements, you get more robust and reliable weather protection. And most significantly, double-wall tents are far and away the more breathable option, as air can flow freely between the tent body and waterproof layer. Single-wall tents, on the other hand, are more minimalist in nature and meant for weekend summit assaults on Mount Rainer or the final push to the top of a Himalayan giant, while double-wall tents are more comfortable at a 17,000-foot camp on Denali in heavy wind and snow. If your trip or expedition is longer than a couple of days, a double-walled tent likely is your best bet.
The interior space of a tent is most commonly measured by the floor area, which we’ve provided in square feet in our product specs and comparison table. Compared to normal backpacking tents, 4-season tents range from minimalist to roomy, depending on their intended use. For example, a mountaineering tent like the MSR Advance Pro 2 is just 24 square feet, while the Mountain Hardwear Trango 2 measures 40 square feet. Two climbers crammed into the Advance Pro 2 will be cramped like sardines whereas the Trango has a lot more room to sprawl. The moral of the story: if you’re looking for space, tents of the basecamp and treeline variety win out.
But square footage doesn’t tell the entire story as it only represents the floor: you also have the peak height and slope of the walls. A high peak height makes it easy to sit up and move around the tent, while heavily sloped walls have a tendency to make everything feel much smaller. We’ve provided the peak heights in our comparison table above, and the slope of the wall is best gauged by carefully studying the shape of the tent (or better yet, getting inside and seeing for yourself). Many tents now feature a cross-bracing pole on the ceiling, which provides lateral stability against wind and snow loads while also offering more headroom (think of a cube as opposed to a pyramid). More headroom can make those tent-bound days more bearable.
Last but not least: make sure to find a tent that is a few inches longer than you are. Otherwise, you will have to sleep at an angle or in the fetal position, neither of which is optimal. Most 4-season tents can accommodate people over 6-feet tall, but Hilleberg seems to be the favorite brand for those who tower over the rest.
By nature, 4-season tents are warmer than 3-season tents—they have less mesh, are designed to protect you from the elements, and therefore hold in more heat. Yet it’s important to keep fresh air flowing both to stay dry and to save you from the funk of your climbing partner’s socks. Over time, your breath will condense on the inner walls of the tent. In warmer weather, it will turn into beads of water on the ceiling and walls. In colder weather, it will turn to frost feathers. Both can fall on your face while you sleep and get your sleeping bag and other gear wet. And sleeping in a fully enclosed tent can make you feel groggy as you continually breathe stale air.
Proper ventilation will help to alleviate many of these issues. It’s important to remember that even the best 4-season tents are prone to some type of condensation, but some fare better than others. Double-wall designs tend to breathe better than single-wall tents, and the more vents the better. If drafts don’t make you uncomfortable, leaving doors and any available vents open can help mitigate condensation. In the product descriptions above we’ve tried to describe which tents in particular are strong or poor in terms of breathability, which certainly can be an important factor to your comfort.
When heavy winds and six feet of snow bury your tent at 14,000-foot camp on Denali, you want to know that it will be able to stand up to the load. Moreover, at higher altitudes and on glaciers, tents will be subjected to intense ultra-violet rays from the sun. This will wear your tent out faster than it would at lower altitudes or in more hospitable climates. For these reasons, many 4-season tents are made with heavy fabric (like 70D Nylon Taffeta with a quality coating) to stand up to the rigors of sunlight (which is stronger at higher altitudes due to the fact that there is less atmosphere to filter its rays), high winds, and driving snow and rain.
Time-tested tents such as the Mountain Hardwear Trango 2, The North Face’s Mountain 25, and numerous Hilleberg models are known for being able to stand up to years of abuse in the toughest climates on Earth. On the other hand, many mountaineering-specific tents are made with thinner fabrics in order to shave weight (the MSR Advance Pro 2 has 20D shell fabric compared to the TNF Mountain 25’s 75D fly), and thus don’t stand up as well to wear and tear. Another way to determine a tent’s longevity is by comparing prices within categories. In general, as the cost of a tent goes down, so does the build quality and durability (for example, the $1,070 Hilleberg Allak is a far more robust treeline tent than the REI Co-op Arete ASL 2). This isn’t a hard-and-fast rule by any means, but cheaper tents tend to be less durable and trustworthy than their more expensive counterparts.
Taking a quick dive into the nitty-gritty of fabric strength and waterproofing, there are two basic types of coatings used on 4-season tents: silicone (also referred to as silnylon) and polyurethane (commonly written as PU). Silicone-coated nylons are very expensive, typically weigh less, pack down smaller, and in the case of Hilleberg’s siliconized Kerlon fabrics, have incredible tear strength and longevity. But even Hilleberg uses polyurethane for the floor of their tents. Polyurethane can be laid on thicker than silicone for excellent puncture and abrasion resistance, is much easier to seam tape, and far less slippery than silicone, which is helpful on a tent floor to keep you from sliding around. The main downside is a shorter lifespan, particularly with low quality polyurethane that is prone to delaminating. But the benefits often don’t outweigh the added cost of silicone, so most non-Hilleberg tents have polyurethane coated rainflies and floors.
On an extended trip where inclement weather is likely, having ample space to store and dry your gear is an absolute necessity. Tents like the Mountain Hardwear Trango 2 and the Big Agnes Copper Spur Expedition are lined with pockets upon pockets. And yet it never ceases to amaze us how easily we fill those pockets with food, gear, and electronics once our packs are emptied. This storage is especially important considering that keeping your gear organized and separate from your partner’s is essential on any long trip (you wouldn’t want him or her to start eating your snacks!). Most tents also feature small loops meant to string guy line across the ceiling, which is useful to dry wet gear after a long day in bad weather.
Perhaps nothing on a 4-season tent is more important to comfort than the vestibule. A tent’s vestibule acts as a separate room that separates the dry, snow and rain-free interior of the tent from the harsh outside elements. Nothing will aggravate your partner more than soaking their dry down sleeping bag with your wet Gore-Tex and snow-ridden boots. The vestibule is where you seal yourself off from the majority of the outside weather and prepare to enter the tent dry, just like you would take your muddy shoes off outside before walking on someone’s carpet. Many tents have a smaller rear vestibule that can hold a few backpacks, but isn’t optimal for cooking or using as the main door. And keep in mind that many mountaineering tents forgo vestibules to shave weight, so be sure to choose accordingly if it’s an important feature to you.
Everyone who has backpacked knows that the number of doors a tent has matters a lot. Nothing is more frustrating than having to crawl blindly over your partner at 2 a.m. to answer nature’s call, and they would probably say the same. In general, lightweight mountaineering tents are most likely to have one door—it’s an easy way to cut weight and keep the footprint of the tent small (and the hope is that you’re not spending a lot of time in the tent anyway). Basecamping and treeline tents are likely to have two doors, which allows each person to enter and exit as they please. And one final consideration in relation to doors: a second door often means a second vestibule, which greatly enhances the storage opportunities and comfort.
In terms of tent pole quality, 4-season tents will have stronger (and heavier) poles that can withstand big gusts of wind. In cold weather, tent fabric shrinks and plastics and metals get brittle. Snapping a tent pole in a storm easily could result in a shredded tent, but stout metal poles (Easton, DAC, etc.) with long connector joints will provide torsional strength. And beware of any tent pole with a plastic tip (the end part of the pole that connects into the grommet of the tent). One year on Denali, one of our gear testers saw over a dozen of the same poles shear off at the tip when a company switched from metal to plastic.
In environments with unpredictable weather, it’s imperative to make your tent bombproof against wind and storms. Once while returning to Camp Muir after summiting Mount Rainier, one of our testers watched a tent roll down the Cowlitz Glacier and fall into a crevasse (true story). He later found out that the team had “anchored” their tent down with basic 6-inch stakes meant to hold a standard tent backpacking in the dirt.
When using a 4-season tent in an alpine environment, it is not uncommon to use backcountry skis, ice axes, pickets, ski poles, bamboo wands, or anything else that can be securely buried and not bend or break under high loads. On big mountains like Denali, it’s advisable to dig down two feet or more and fill around your “stake” with very compact snow. If you don’t have long skis or poles at your disposal, you can make a “deadman” anchor with any spare pieces of gear lying around. Simply wrap a stick, rock, tent stake—even a stuff sack filled with snow—with a guyline and bury it deep into the snow. What’s most important here is that you cover the deadman with heavy, compact snow so it does not become unanchored.
You might be wondering why on earth we would recommend a non-waterproof tent like the Black Diamond Firstlight here. After all, isn’t the whole purpose of a tent—especially a 4-season tent—to keep you dry? Yes—and no. Here is our reasoning: In truly wintery conditions when temperatures stay well below freezing, the chance of snow melting and seeping through the walls of a tent like the Firstlight is slim to none (and if it does, the DWR coating puts up a fairly solid defense). If there ever was a time to skimp on waterproofing, deep winter is it. On the other hand, in warmer temperatures there’s a good chance you’ll be using your tent as more of a shelter from wind than rain (think summer in Patagonia). In this case, a windproof tent is all you need.
There are a couple clear benefits to forgoing waterproof material in a tent. First, waterproof fabrics and seam taping increase weight and price—at 3 pounds 6 ounces and reasonable $370, the Black Diamond Firstlight is an ultralight, affordable option. In addition, waterproofing generally detracts from breathability—especially in a single-walled tent—which means that the other waterproof models trap noticeably more condensation than the Firstlight. But these benefits come with some responsibility. Make sure you seal your tent’s seams as a first line of defense against wet precipitation (Gear Aid’s Grip Seam Sealer is a proven choice). Second, routinely give your tent a shake when it’s snowing so that there is no opportunity for the snow to warm and turn to water. And when you’re not sure of what the weather might do, leave your Firstlight at home and bring a truly waterproof structure.
Four-season tents are the “take anywhere, do anything” tent, and they are designed to withstand the harshest environments in the world. We’ve watched entire vacations go by from the inside of a 4-season tent as inches of snow and rain fall outside, staying dry and comfortable inside (albeit stir crazy and disappointed). Like the old adage says: “don’t bring a knife to a gunfight.” Likewise, don’t bring a tent designed for the Pacific Crest Trail to the stormy realms of the Cascade volcanoes, Denali, or Patagonia’s Torre Valley.
When you are using a 4-season tent, odds are you will be in a climate prone to inhospitable weather. 4-season tents are more robust, heavier, and more durable than standard backpacking tents, and designed to withstand heavy wind, rain and snow. They’re also packed with features, including flies that extend farther down the main body of the tent (and some models feature snow skirts—flaps that are meant to be buried in snow), high bathtubs on the main body to prevent rain and snow from leeching into the tent, and large vestibules that provide ample room for storage and cooking. It’s not uncommon on big mountain expeditions in Alaska to see intricate kitchens where teams have dug pits in the snow and can comfortably stand, cook, and socialize in the enclosed space of their vestibule.
Most of the tents above feature a pole-supported design that provides 360-degree security from wind, rain, snow, and bugs. But for those who value weight-savings above all else, a 4-season shelter offers weather protection almost on par with a treeline model at half the weight or less. To maximize their strength-to-weight ratios, popular 4-season shelters like the Black Diamond Mega Snow above and Hyperlite Mountain Gear Ultamid 2 are floorless, non-freestanding, and utilize a center pole (often two attached trekking poles or ski poles) to create a taught, pyramid shape. When properly set up, these tents can hold strong in moderate wind and shed driving rain and snowfall.
Our favorite use for a 4-season shelter is as an additional living space while basecamping on snow. By digging out the base, you can create a sitting and standing area for four (or more!) that offers a great change of pace from tent life. Then, when you need a true respite from bugs, wet ground, or seeping rain, you always can escape to the security of your tent. The most intrepid of adventurers might opt for a 4-season shelter as their dedicated sleeping area, but we only recommend this for trips when the weather is mild or when weight really wins out: long ski traverses, fast-and-light climbs, and backcountry treks that cover a lot of distance and require a very light pack.
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